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  • In conclusion, this is the first report to study the association between CA9 SNP and UCC risk. The patients carrying the C/A genotype of the rs1048638 of the CA9 gene polymorphism had a significantly increased UCC risk and invasive cancer risk. The synergistic effect of smoking and CA9 gene polymorphisms on the risk of invasive UCC is also demonstrated. Large-scale studies may be required to verify the association between the SNP of hypoxia related gene such as CA9 and UCC risk.


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