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  • CA9 reflects significant changes in tumor biology and decreased CA9 concentration is independently associated with poor survival in advanced renal cell carcinoma. CA9 can be used to predict clinical outcome in such high risk kidney cancer patients who need adjuvant immunotherapy and CA9 targeted therapies [pone.0082804-Bui1]. CA9 also links to poor vascularization and resistance of chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer [pone.0082804-Koukourakis1] and is associated with reduced overall survival and disease-free survival [pone.0082804-Peridis1]. Alexander et al [pone.0082804-Stillebroer1] review researches of CA9 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and conclude it can improve diagnostic accuracy and is an attractive target image of and therapy for clear cell RCC. CA9 expression is suggested to be a strong predictor of recurrence, progression, and overall survival of bladder cancer patients because it was expressed differentially in noninvasive versus invasive tumors, in low-grade versus high-grade bladder cancer, and in primary tumors versus metastases [pone.0082804-Klatte1].

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